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可替代燃料

Nowhere, perhaps, is the decarbonization journey undergoing more of a seismic shift than in the development and refinement of alternative fuel sources. While users have traditionally been relegated to few options other than diesel, 生物柴油和天然气, progress is being made on several fronts to expand those choices dramatically. 

多年来, 全国最大的彩票平台 has been closely monitoring developments in the field of alternative fuels, recognizing it as the “new normal” it is sure to become. 为此目的, 我们召集了一个高技能的, well-informed team to help our customers understand what will — and won’t — meet their needs today and moving forward. Many innovative solutions will require time to mature, 发展配套的基础设施, 获得广泛认可, etc. 当前的, 随时可用的选项, however, can prove an ideal starting point for any forward-thinking company seeking to address the issue of decarbonization. 

The road less travelled is soon to get very crowded. Let 全国最大的彩票平台 help you consider the alternatives.

既定的替代方案
生物柴油
生物柴油, 由大豆制成, canola, 植物油或动物脂肪, is the most common and best-known alternative diesel fuel. 当用作柴油的替代品时, 生物柴油 can offer considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits and reduce engine part wear.

下一代替代方案
可再生柴油
可再生柴油, 或HVO(加氢处理植物油), offers significant improvements over traditional 生物柴油. 市场上“最环保”的柴油, it is odorless and colorless and delivers impressive performance benefits. 由植物油加氢加工而成, 脂肪和废食用油, along with other biomass feedstock like garbage, 木材和农业废弃物, renewable diesel must meet the same ASTM standards as its petroleum-based counterpart. It can be used as a diesel substitute (up to 100%, with no blend-wall limitations) with no modifications to the vehicle fuel system or fuel station equipment. It is also stable in long-term storage and does not block fuel filters. Other benefits include: enhanced vehicle performance, 温室气体排放量减少50%, 改善里程, reduced maintenance demands and superior performance in cold weather. 

未来的燃料
One of the most abundant resources on the planet, 氢燃烧时零碳排放, 并且可以由绿色能源生产. Although the market for hydrogen as a transportation fuel is in its infancy, government and industry are working toward clean, 经济, and safe hydrogen production and 分布. The prospect for hydrogen use as an alt fuel is promising, both because internal combustion engines can be modified to run on hydrogen and because the main waste product of a hydrogen-fueled engine is water vapor, 不是二氧化碳. Also, 不像汽油, hydrogen burns well in “fuel-lean conditions,” those in which there is far more oxygen than fuel which improves fuel efficiency while greatly reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. 

替代燃料常见问题

Alternative or clean fuels are fuels that produce much lower greenhouse gas emissions than traditional petroleum-based fuels based on life-cycle analysis. Life cycle analysis is used to assess the environmental impacts of all stages of a product's life, 包括原料提取, 处理, 制造业, 分布, use, 处理或回收. 当比较燃料时, a life cycle analysis may focus on particular portions of a fuel's life cycle, 比如从提取到使用, 也被称为从油井到车轮, to determine the merits or problems associated with each fuel.

在加拿大这里, the motivation is compliance with the Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act, which enshrines in legislation the Government of Canada’s commitment to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and provides a framework of accountability and transparency to deliver on it. Its main points include establishing a legally binding process to set five-year national emissions-reduction targets as well as develop credible, science-based emissions-reduction plans to achieve each target. 除了, it establishes the 2030 greenhouse gas emissions target as Canada’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement emissions reductions of 40-45 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. The Act also establishes a requirement to set national emissions reduction targets for 2035, 2040, 和2045年, 提前十年. Each target will require credible, science-based emissions reduction plans to achieve it. 

There are a number of varied alternative fuels including:
  • 纤维素乙醇
  • 生物柴油
  • 可再生柴油
  • 可持续航空燃料
  • 可再生天然气
  • 可再生丙烷

生物柴油 is a diesel fuel substitute used in diesel engines made from renewable materials such as: vegetable oil, 废食用油, 动物脂肪, 鱼油, 海藻油, 并且可能来自纤维素原料.

Point of Interest: 生物柴油 is already finding its place as a blend used in conventional diesel-powered vehicles and can typically be blended in concentrations up to 20%. The US EPA suggests that 生物柴油 emits up to 11% lower carbon monoxide levels and as much as 10% lower particulate matter than conventional petroleum-based diesel.

可再生柴油, is also known as HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil), or HDRD (hydrogenation derived renewable diesel) and is certified to EN15940. Handling of renewable diesel is the same as conventional diesel and because renewable diesel is a drop-in fuel, it meets ASTM D975 specification for petroleum diesel, 并且可以无缝地混合, 运输, and even co-processed with petroleum diesel.

Point of Interest: Commonly produced from vegetable oil, 废食用油, 动物脂肪, 鱼油, 不可食用的玉米油, 海藻油, it improves greenhouse gas emissions by up to 75 percent while providing an energy density approximately 96% that of standard diesel. 

不,他们不是. 可再生柴油, 以前被称为绿色柴油, is a hydrocarbon produced most often by hydrotreating but also via gasification, 热解, and other biochemical and thermochemical technologies. It meets ASTM D975 specification for petroleum diesel. 生物柴油, as mentioned, is a diesel fuel substitute made from renewable materials. It meets ASTM D6751 and is approved for blending with petroleum diesel.

Yes. 而生物柴油, 如果混合超过5%, may require modifications to vehicle fuel systems and fuel station equipment, 可再生柴油不需要. 除了, renewable diesel can be either fully substituted for diesel or blended in any amount (生物柴油  is not recommended for blending above 5%); and it is stable in long-term storage, will not absorb significant amounts of moisture and does not cause blocks in fuel filters — all shortcomings of 生物柴油.

While not as beneficial in achieving Net-Zero goals, 生物柴油, which emits up to 11% lower carbon monoxide and 10% lower particulate matter than conventional diesel, is still a great first step in reducing one’s carbon footprint. 生物柴油 is also already widely available and is currently being blended into conventional diesel in most regions. Because it also offers better lubrication properties than Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel, it can increase engine life and can reduce carcinogen levels during combustion by as much as 85% versus petroleum-based diesel.

氢(H2) is an alternative fuel that can be produced from varied domestic resources. Although the market for hydrogen as a transportation fuel is in its infancy, government and industry are working toward clean, 经济, and safe hydrogen production and 分布 for widespread use in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). 

Point of Interest: Light-duty FCEVs are already available in limited quantities to the consumer market in localized regions both here and abroad. 公共汽车市场也在发展, material handling equipment (such as forklifts), 地面支援设备, 中型和重型卡车, 和海上船只. 

It is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit. It can be produced from grasses, wood, algae, or other plants. 纤维素乙醇 contains more net energy and emits significantly fewer greenhouse gases than ethanol made from corn. Ethanol is a fuel that is being blended with gasoline today. A popular use case for this type of fuel is in high-performance vehicles.

Point of Interest: 纤维素乙醇 contains more net energy and emits significantly fewer greenhouse gases than ethanol made from corn. And, 一旦它的基础设施到位, cellulosic ethanol will work for any flex-fuel vehicle capable of running on E85.

SAF is a fuel derived from renewable resources that enables a reduction in net life cycle carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional fuels. When SAF is blended with conventional jet fuel, 符合ASTM D1655, which allows it to be used in existing aircraft and infrastructure. 

Point of interest: A range of different biomasses and feedstock types can be used to make the fuel and, because some commercial airlines have already successfully used it, a certain level of future use/demand is ensured.

RNG is a pipeline-quality gas that is fully interchangeable with conventional natural gas and thus can be used in natural gas vehicles. RNG is essentially biogas (the gaseous product of the decomposition of organic matter) that has been processed to purity standards. 比如传统天然气, RNG can be used as a transportation fuel in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). 

Point of interest: 除了 to the obvious benefit of reducing methane (greenhouse gas) emissions, the use of RNG can provide benefits in terms of fuel security, 经济收入或储蓄, and improvements in local air quality where the gasses are captured. i.e burning it does not improve air quality, capturing the gas from the biomass does.

可再生丙烷 is a fuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks, 包括大豆油, 用过的食用油和动物油脂. The most common form of renewable propane today is a byproduct from the same process that creates renewable diesel from soybean oil. 

Point of Interest: The sources that go into producing renewable propane are not only materials most consider to be waste but can include plant matter such as corn. By 2050, renewable propane could meet half the world’s demand for propane, 根据世界液化石油气协会的数据.

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